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Задание 10. Понимание основного содержания текста: все задания

Остальные задачи

1. Задание#T910

Установите соответствие между текстами A-G и заголовками . Запишите в поле для ответа последовательность цифр, соответствующих текстам ABCDEFG. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.
  1. Perm’s industry
  2. City’s cultural life
  3. Natural resource as attraction
  4. The greatest achievement
  5. Traditionally liberal
  6. Beneficial location
  7. Where the name comes from
  8. Too important to be left alone
A. The word “Perm” first appeared in the 12th century in the Primary Chronicle, the main source describing the early history of the Russian people. The Perm were listed among the people who paid tribute to the Rus. The origin of the word “Perm” remains unclear. Most likely, the word came from the Finno-Ugric languages and meant “far land” or “flat, forested place”. But some local residents say it may have come from Per, a hero and the main character of many local legends.

B. Novgorodian traders were the first to show an interest in Perm. Starting from the 15th century, the Muscovite princes included the area in their plans to create a unified Russian state. During this time the first Russian villages appeared in the northern part of the region. The first industry to appear in the area was a salt factory, which developed on the Usolka river in the city of Solikamsk. Rich salt reserves generated great interest on the part of Russia’s wealthiest merchants, some of whom bought land there.

C. The history of the modern city of Perm starts with the development of the Ural region by Tsar Peter the Great. Perm became the capital of the region in 1781 when the territorial structure of the country was reformed. A special commission determined that the best place would be at the crossroads of the Trans-Siberian Railroad, which runs east-west and the Kazan line, which runs north-south. This choice resulted in Perm becoming a major trade and industrial centre. The city quickly grew to become one of the biggest in the region.

D. Perm is generally stable and peaceful, so the shocks of 1917 did not reach it right away. Neither did they have the same bloody results as in Petrograd. Perm tried to distance itself from the excesses and did not share the enthusiasm for change of its neighbours. Residents supported more moderate parties. They voted for the establishment of a west European style democracy in Russia. Unfortunately, the city could not stay completely unaffected, as both the White and the Red armies wanted its factories.

E. Perm’s desire for stability and self-control made the region seem like a “swamp” during the democratic reforms of the 1990s. Unlike other regions, there were no intense social conflicts or strikes. Nevertheless, Perm was always among the regions that supported the democratic movement. In the 1999 elections, the party that wanted to continue the reforms won a majority in the region. So the city got an unofficial status of “the capital of civil society” or even “the capital of Russian liberalism”.

F. During the Second World War many factories were moved to Perm Oblast and continued to work there after it ended. Chemicals, non-ferrous metallurgy, and oil refining were the key industries after the war. Other factories produced aircraft engines, equipment for telephones, ships, bicycles, and cable. Perm press produces about 70 percent of Russia’s currency and stamped envelopes. Nowadays several major business companies are located in Perm. The biggest players of Russian aircraft industry are among them.

G. Perm has at least a dozen theatres featuring productions that are attracting audiences from faraway cities, and even from abroad. The broad esplanade running from the city’s main square has become the site of almost continuous international art, theatre and music fairs during the summer. Even the former prison camp with grim walls outside town was converted into a theater last July for a production of “Fidelio”, Beethoven’s opera about political repression. The performance was well-reviewed.
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2. Задание#T5451

Установите соответствие между текстами A-G и заголовками .
  1. A good investment
  2. How it all began
  3. Multi-purpose constructions
  4. All is well that ends well
  5. A vertical marathon
  6. Breathtaking athletic events
  7. 21 century technology
  8. Once number one globally
A. Radio and television towers are tall structures designed to transmit radio or television signals. However, besides serving their main function they often become tourist attractions, as a lot of them are true architectural wonders. Among some of the most famous – and tallest – towers in the world are the Tokyo Skytree, the Canton Tower in China, the CN Tower in Toronto, Canada, and the Ostankino Tower in Moscow, Russia.

B. The Ostankino Tower is 540 meters tall which makes it the tallest tower in Europe. When it was built in 1968, it was the tallest structure in the world, which it remained until 1975. The Ostankino Tower radio and television signal covers the area with the population of over 15 million people. The Tower also has an observation platform and a restaurant about 330 meters in the air which you can reach on one of the lifts in just 58 seconds.

C. The first Radio Tower in Moscow was built during the Civil War in 1922 by the outstanding Russian architect Vladimir Shukhov and is a hyperboloid structure. In fact, it was Shukhov who first invented the hyperboloid metal structure in the 1890s, inspired by the weaving of peasant baskets. Vladimir Lenin himself approved the construction of this tower which today is considered a historic and architectural monument of Soviet Constructivism.

D. Yet another use of television towers is holding sports events. Some of the most common ones are base-jumping, an extreme sport where participants jump off high structures with parachutes; and bungee jumping, where the jumpers are attached to a tall structure with a large elastic cord. Among the more traditional competitions is racing up the tower staircase, which was held in the Ostankino Tower up until 2000, when the tower was damaged by the fire.

E. The fire broke out at a height of 458 m on 27 August, 2000. It took over 300 firefighters, more than 24 hours and a lot of effort to stop it. Many people were afraid that the tower would not be able to survive and would collapse. Luckily it didn’t happen. But almost all TV channels and some radio channels stopped working for several days. The reconstruction of the tower that followed lasted until 2007. In 2009 the tower reopened its doors to tourists.

F. And not only to them. On July 21, 2018, Ostankino Tower was open again to 28 sportsmen from 12 countries who raced up its winding staircase. The staircase is very narrow, so the sportsmen had to run one by one with a 30 second interval between them. Only professional runners were allowed to participate. It was a German athlete Christian Riedl who made it to the top in just 9 minutes and 51 seconds, setting a new record.

G. It would be logical to assume that television towers are the tallest structures in the world. In fact, it had been true until 2009 when the Burj Khalifa, the tallest sky-scraper in the world, was built in Dubai. It cost about $ 1.5 billion to complete the construction of this building, but it paid off: office and apartment space pricing is over $ 40,000 per m2, and over 90% of all the apartments and offices are now occupied!
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3. Задание#T5473

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками .
  1. A time for physical exercise
  2. It is worth it!
  3. Traditional winter drinks
  4. Not as bad as you may think!
  5. A unique cultural season
  6. Just know the right people!
  7. Too pretty to be real!
  8. Where old and new times meet
A. If you mention travelling to Moscow in the winter, most foreign tourists will think you are crazy. Many of them will imagine snow, freezing temperatures and having to wear big parkas and fur hats. They are missing out, though, because winter in Moscow is like a fairy tale, and one of the most beautiful times of the year to visit. There is so much to see and do that the chance to visit this beautiful city during the winter should not be missed.

B. The shocking truth is that the Russian capital at wintertime is not as cold as many people would imagine. While the weather can be unpredictable, most of the time the temperature is around –5 degrees Celsius with a moderate amount of snow. Compared to Siberia, it is very mild. The biggest problems are that you can slip and fall on the ice, and salt on the sidewalks which can destroy your boots.

C. Many famous places of interest in Moscow become magical in the winter. Red Square is one of the first places to go to. With the snow falling gently, Saint Basil's Cathedral looks like a giant wedding cake covered in icing. Another place one should certainly visit is Novodevichy Convent with its lacelike towers and golden domes. When surrounded by snow, it resembles a fairy-tale castle of a beautiful princess.

D. Muscovites enjoy a wide variety of sports and activities in the wintertime. Cross-country skiing is a great way to both get fit and enjoy the winter beauty of the many public parks in Moscow. Another favorite pastime is ice skating. There is a giant skating rink every winter in Red Square and many smaller rinks throughout the city. There are many other winter sports that are popular such as snowboarding, sledding and ice fishing.

E. There are a lot of events in Moscow that can be experienced only in winter. The New Year holiday celebration is the most special time of the year and is like Christmas and New Year's Eve combined into one big party. The Russian Winter festival features performances of traditional Russian song and dance, games, crafts and ice sculptures. Finally, those feeling brave can dive into an ice hole for the Epiphany holiday.

F. If you get too cold while walking around, you can always go into a shop to warm up. There are many modern shopping malls throughout Moscow, but if you want to experience the retro charm and nostalgia of days past, there is no better place than GUM on Red Square or Eliseevsky food store on Tverskaya. In addition, there are many cafes located throughout the city if you need a hot drink or something to eat.

G. If you make Russian friends, you may get invited to their dacha and see the beautiful winter countryside outside Moscow. Here the snow will be deeper and the temperatures lower, but you won't be too cold as Russians have ways to stay warm. Best of all is the Russian Steam Bath. You can sit in the steam and when you find yourself hot and sweaty, you can do as the Russians do and jump in the snow outside to cool off.
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4. Задание#T5505

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками .
  1. A lasting relationship
  2. An inspirational city
  3. An unexpected discovery
  4. A brilliant celebration
  5. A random birthday
  6. Undestroyed beauty
  7. The future of the city
  8. Not intellectual enough
A. Nobody knows when Moscow first appeared on the face of the earth. It is true that the first mention of Moscow dates back to 1147, but by that time it had probably been around for a while and was big enough to be mentioned in the Russian chronicles. Still, it is convenient to use that date to celebrate Moscow’s anniversaries which we are doing this year – Moscow has turned 870, a respectable age for one of the biggest capitals in the world!

B. Throughout its history, Moscow has been visited by many English speakers. The first British people arrived in Moscow in 1553 by accident. In the age of great geographical discoveries, when Spanish and Portuguese navigators were sailing the world in search of the shortest way to Asia, British merchants tried to find their own way – through the Arctic. When they were stopped by ice, they turned their ships south and ended up in Russia.

C. Ivan the Terrible was happy to meet the first English merchants and granted them privileges to make trade between Russia and Britain easy. This was how The Muscovy Company appeared in Britain. The Czar even granted them a house near the Kremlin. This solid brick building has survived all the fires of Moscow and can be visited today. In 1994, during Queen Elizabeth’s visit to Moscow, it was turned into a museum – The Old English Court.

D. Mr Francis Pargiter was one of the merchants of The Muscovy Company and visited Moscow in the 1660s. He did not leave a written account of his trip, but his impressions of Moscow were recorded by his friend – Samuel Pepys, a Member of Parliament who kept a diary. Mr Pargiter described Moscow as ‘a very great city’ but mostly with wooden houses and with very few people playing chess and ‘not a man that speaks Latin’!

E. In 1867, Moscow’s 720th anniversary, a trip to Moscow was undertaken by the author of “Alice in Wonderland”, Lewis Carrol. He described Moscow as a ‘wonderful city, a city of white houses and green roofs, of conical towers that rise one out of another like a telescope; of bulging glided domes, in which you can see as in looking glass, distorted pictures of the city.’ It is believed that the idea of “Through the Looking Glass” came to the writer during his trip to Russia.

F. In 1917, during the restless days of the Revolution, when not many people even remembered Moscow’s 770th anniversary, Moscow was visited by the American journalist John Reed. Among the fires and destroyed buildings, he was happy to see St. Basil’s Cathedral untouched: ‘Late at night we went through the empty streets to the great Red Square. The church of Vasili Blazheiny loomed fantastic, its bright-coloured cupolas vague in darkness’.

G. In 1947, the American writer John Steinbeck witnessed Moscow’s 800th anniversary celebration. ‘The walls of the Kremlin and its towers were outlined in electric lights. Every public building was floodlighted. In every public square dance stands had been put up, and in some of the squares little booths, made to look like Russian fairy-tale houses, had been erected for sale of sweets, and ice-cream, and souvenirs’, he wrote in his Russian Journal.
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5. Задание#T5530

Установите соответствие между текстами A-G и заголовками .
  1. A shop that inspired writers
  2. Country’s brave defenders
  3. A truly international place
  4. Governesses of rich children
  5. Birth of a popular sport
  6. Textile business links
  7. A nice-sounding building
  8. The initial steps of commerce
A. Moscow has always been a multicultural city. If we look back at its history, we will see that there were several foreign communities living in Moscow on a permanent basis. We all know about German people inhabiting the banks of the Yauza river, where little Peter, the future tsar of all Russia, ran around, made friends and got his first ideas of learning about ships and fleets. But what do we know about the British community of Moscow? Did it even exist?

B. The first ties between Russia and Britain were formed in the middle of the 16th century in the time of Ivan the Terrible. It was then that some wealthy British merchants founded the Muscovy Company which held a monopoly on trade between Britain and Russia until 1698. The building of its Moscow headquarters was granted to the company by the tsar in 1556 and can be still visited at 4, Varvarka Street, known to us now as The Old English Court.

C. Beginning from the time of Peter the Great, several talented British military men moved to Russia. Many of them served as army generals and navy admirals, defending Russian borders in different wars and battles. Among the most famous ones were Field Marshall James Bruce, Field Marshall Barclay de Tolly and Admiral Thomas Mackenzie, all of them of Scottish origin.

D. In the 18th century, British industrialists made themselves known in Russia. One of the most outstanding figures was Robert McGill, who lived in Moscow and served as an intermediary between Lancashire mill engineers and the Russian cotton industry, and built over 150 mills (cotton factories) in Russia. Robert McGill had a house in Spiridonovka Street and together with his wife Jane was a prominent member of the British community in Moscow.

E. If you talk to Moscow concert musicians who were active between the 1960s and the 1990s, they will tell you of the fantastic acoustics of the “Melodiya” recording studio at 8, Voznesensky Lane, which they lovingly called ‘kirche’, mistakenly thinking it was a German church. This building, designed in the English neo-gothic architectural style, was in fact built in 1885 by Robert McGill and is St. Andrew’s Anglican Church, which was used as a recording studio in Soviet times.

F. Another spectacular example of British architecture in Moscow is the old building of TsUM next to the Bolshoy and Maly theatres. Built in the early 1900s, it was back then the biggest department store in Moscow. It was owned by Scottish merchants Andrew Muir and Archie Mirrielees. Mayakovsky mentions Muir&Mirrielees in several of his poems, while Chekhov named his dogs after its two owners.

G. In 1887, two other cotton industrialists from Lancashire, Clement and Harry Charnock, moved to work at a cotton factory in Orekhovo-Zuevo, near Moscow. They were both great football fans and decided to introduce this game to the workers of the factory. This resulted in the first professional football team in Russia which after the Revolution became the core of Moscow Dynamo team.
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